More and more, at work, we’re talking about service oriented architectures. Mostly, these are very small apps that deal with just a few concerns. Since we foresee having lots and lots of these little mini-services, we decided we’d need to make some decisions up front about how they’re inter-operate. This is sort of in the spirit of convention over configuration.

More to avoid having to re-make the decision about what shape responses from these services should take every time we start a new one than for any other reason, we decided that all these services should speak HAL. This way, we can get good at dealing with HAL and once you grok how to talk to one service, that knowledge will transfer readily to others. We picked HAL over other formats we considered basically by typing out an example response off the top of our heads and then seeing which existing format looked the closest. So scientific.

Since that time, I’ve spent a fair amount of time monkeying with HAL and related hypermedia issues. There are a lot of angles, here, but I wanted to start off by writing about the idea of a HAL client.


Initially, I started using a Ruby library called Hyperclient. It basically abstracts parsing and navigating HAL documents and making requests to the links in them away from the developer using it. At first, I thought this would be great. However, the more I used it, the more I felt like it was doing more to me than for me.

In it’s effort to keep the developer from needing to know the HAL spec front to back, it is pretty complicated and has a lot of corners for edge cases to get stuck in. And, really, since HAL is so readable, it ends up just mapping hash access to method calls in a lot of cases.


I really hope I don’t have a NIH complex, but… I do use Arch Linux because of the level of fiddling it allows with how my laptop behaves… and I tune and tweak my .vimrc and .bashrc so my environment is just so. Thus, it shouldn’t really be surprising that when I wanted more control, I decided to build something from scratch (sort of).

The other day, after encountering some weird interaction between Faraday, Hyperclient and certain features of WebMock, I decided to see how hard it would be to rip Hyperclient out and replace it with something dumber and simpler. After talking it over with the team, we decided the best course would be to time-box it to a day.

Here’s the 42 lines I replaced Hyperclient with:

``` ruby hal_response.rb require ‘forwardable’

class HalResponse extend Forwardable

def_delegators :response, :status, :success?, :body def_delegators :hal, :[], :fetch

attr_reader :response

def initialize(response) @response = response end

def hal? response.headers[‘content-type’] =~ %r{\Aapplication/hal+json} end

def links hal[‘_links’] || {} end

def get_uri(rel, expansions={})[rel.to_s][‘href’]).expand(expansions) end

def attributes hal.except(‘_links’, ‘_embedded’) end


def hal @hal ||= parse_hal end

def parse_hal self.hal? ? JSON.parse(response.body) : {} rescue JSON::JSONError, TypeError {} end end

The way this works, is you build your own Faraday object, you make the requests
yourself, then you feed the response into a `HalResponse` constructor to monkey
with it. If you want to follow a link, you call `get_uri` and feed that result
to your Faraday object. A short example:

``` ruby example.rb
client ='')
root =

posts =
search_results =, q: 'Ruby')))
new_post =, title: 'Blah', body: 'whatever')))

It’s important to note that my 42 lines don’t deal at all with embedded resources and are tailored to handle cases presented by a specific API of a specific service I’m coding against. But that’s actually part of my point: Do we need HAL clients? Is the document format that hard to grok?

Since HAL (and other hypermedia types) rely on the semantics of HTTP pretty heavily, it seems much more important to have a robust HTTP client. Dealing with the specially-formatted response bodies seems like a separate issue to me. I may expand the above class as I continue to use it in production, but I kind of like the wordy, do-nothing-for-you kind of way it works.